BACKGROUND: Investigation of metagenomes provides greater insight into uncultured microbial communities. The improvement in sequencing technology, which yields a large amount of sequence data, has led to major breakthroughs in the field. However, at present, taxonomic binning tools for metagenomes discard 30-40% of Sanger sequencing data due to the stringency of BLAST cut-offs. In an attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of metagenomic data, we re-analyzed the discarded metagenomes by using less stringent cut-offs. Additionally, we introduced a new criterion, namely, the evolutionary conservation of adjacency between neighboring genes. To evaluate the feasibility of our approach, we re-analyzed discarded contigs and singletons from several environments with different levels of complexity. We also compared the consistency between our taxonomic binning and those reported in the original studies. RESULTS: Among the discarded data, we found that 23.7 +/- 3.9% of singletons and 14.1 +/- 1.0% of contigs were assigned to taxa. The recovery rates for singletons were higher than those for contigs. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a high degree of similarity (0.94 +/- 0.03 at the phylum rank and 0.80 +/- 0.11 at the family rank) between the proposed taxonomic binning approach and those reported in original studies. In addition, an evaluation using simulated data demonstrated the reliability of the proposed approach. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that taking account of conserved neighboring gene adjacency improves taxonomic assignment when analyzing metagenomes using Sanger sequencing. In other words, utilizing the conserved gene order as a criterion will reduce the amount of data discarded when analyzing metagenomes.